Vol. 20 No. 4 (2023): Journal of Non Destructive Testing and Evaluation (JNDE), Dec 2023
Research Papers

AI-Driven CFRP Structure Evaluation: Deep Learning-Powered Automated Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Detection of Defect

Published 07-12-2023


  • Ultrasonic-Testing,
  • Defect identification,
  • Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers,
  • Convolutional neural networks

How to Cite

Amitabha Datta, Kota, S., Srinivasa V, & Ramesh Kumar M. (2023). AI-Driven CFRP Structure Evaluation: Deep Learning-Powered Automated Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Detection of Defect. Journal of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (JNDE), 20(4), 70–76. Retrieved from https://jnde.isnt.in/index.php/JNDE/article/view/69


In this study, the successful experiments with air-coupled ultrasonic testing (ACUT) conducted on a  300 mm x 300 mm CFRP laminate, constructed from unidirectional Carbon Fibres, has been designed to simulate various types of damage during manufacturing, were presented as part of the experimental data. It was noted that the ACUT results exhibited strong correlations with the ground truth. To improve automated defect detection, a two-stage process was introduced. In the initial stage, C-Scan data acquired from the ACUT system was utilized. This data underwent meticulous analysis by a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) image classifier, which categorized the images into two primary classes: defects and non-defects. Subsequently, defect instances underwent in-depth processing using Mask R-CNN, a technique that generated bounding boxes and segmentation masks for each defect zone within the images. The entire process was executed utilizing TensorFlow. The ultimate objective of this approach was to provide inspectors with the requisite tools to promptly and accurately discern and assess defects in composite materials, with the potential to substantially enhance the efficiency and precision of quality control processes in composite structures.


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