Vol. 19 No. 2 (2022): June 2022
Research Papers

Investigation of Structural Integrity and Stability Evaluation of Fire Affected Building by Non-Destructive Testing

K. N. Lakshmikandhan
CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre, Tharamani, Chennai - 600113, India
J. Prabhakar
CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre, Tharamani, Chennai - 600113, India
K. Sivasubramanian
CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre, Tharamani, Chennai - 600113, India

Published 26-06-2022


  • NDT,
  • Condition assessment,
  • PDT,
  • Structural Stability

How to Cite

Lakshmikandhan, K. N. ., Prabhakar, J. ., & Sivasubramanian, K. . (2022). Investigation of Structural Integrity and Stability Evaluation of Fire Affected Building by Non-Destructive Testing. Journal of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (JNDE), 19(2), 1–9. Retrieved from http://jnde.isnt.in/index.php/JNDE/article/view/3


The structural integrity evaluation of building is an important concern in any post disastrous situations like earthquakes, fires, and etc. Fire hazard is probably initiated by the small electrical leakages or unnoticed straining in the building premises. However, such situations are controlled by manual or automatic surveillance. In Covid-19 scenario, many industrial buildings were under lock down and the monitoring of fire accidents became difficult. Such an event occurred in a Chennai industrial estate and the fire has caused huge structural and non-structural damages. A detailed visual inspection study is carried out. The structural beams, columns and slabs have been affected with micro to macro cracks and spalling of cover concretes. Reinforcements are exposed fire and some members are severely deformed. The extent of fire has been investigated using neutralisation test, relative geometrical variation measures. The structural integrity of structural elements are assessed using Non Destructive Testing (NDT) and Partial Destructive Testing (PDT). Using cores, the neutralization test and compressive strength tests are carried out. From the visualisation study, it has been observed that about 60 to 70 % of the structure is severely affected by fire. The NDT and PDT results indicated that the surface hardness, strength and integrity of concrete are severely affected due to fire. The neutralisation test indicates that about 50 mm depth of the concrete become acidic nature. The relative dimensional measures agreed with NDT and PDT findings and indicated that, the structural components are excessively deformed and it is not fit to usage without rehabilitation and structural restoration.


  1. . Bhaskar S, Ramanjaneyulu K, Kanchanadevi A, and Saibabu S (2018),"Fire Damage to Concrete Furnace-Supporting Structure and Formulation of Repair Methodology", J. Perform. Constr. Facil., 32(2): DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0001142
  2. . Bottee W. (2017), Caspeele R,"Post-cooling properties of concrete exposed to fire",Fire Safety Journal 92, 142–150, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.06.010
  3. . Britez, C., Carvalho, M., Helene, P. (2020), " Fire impacts on concrete structures. A brief review", Revista ALCONPAT, 10 (1), pp. 1 – 21, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21041/ra.v10i1.421
  4. . Fletcher I.A., Welch S., Torero J and Richard O. Carvel R. O. (2007), "Behaviour of concrete structures in fire", Thermal Science, 11(2):37-52, DOI: 10.2298/TSCI0702037F
  5. . Hager, I. (2013). “Behaviour of cement concrete at high temperature.” Bulletin of the polish academy of sciences, vol. 61, no. 1, 145–154, DOI: 10.2478/bpasts-2013-0013
  6. . Indian Standard code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete, IS-456(2000).
  7. . Indian Standard for non-destructive testing of concrete - methods of test, part 1 ultrasonic pulse velocity, Is13311(Part-1)-1992 (Reaffirmed 2004)
  8. . Indian Standard Method of non-destructive testing of concrete-methods of test, Part 2: Rebound hammer, for IS 13311-2 (1992), pp 1-5.
  9. . Khoury G. A., (2000), "Effect of fire on concrete and concrete structures", Prog. Struct. Engng Mater. vol. 2, pp. 429-447
  10. . Krzemien K and Hager I,(2015)., "Post-fire assessment of mechanical properties of concrete with the use of the impact-echo method", Construction and Building Materials, Volume 96, Pages 155-163, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.08.007
  11. . Short N.R., Purkiss J.A., Guise S.E. (2001), "Assessment of fire damaged concrete using colour image analysis", Construction and Building Materials, 15, pp. 9-15, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-0618(00)00065-9
  12. . Bazaant Z. P., and Zhou Y. (2002), "Why Did the World Trade Centre Collapse? —Simple Analysis1”, J. Eng. Mech., ASCE, 2002, 128(1): 2-6, DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2002)128:1(2)